The main tool to eliminate the country’s dependence on foreign strategic products is the application of scientific research in the economy



At present, science in the world is clearly becoming a full-fledged productive force of society and economy. If we look at the experience of the United States or developed European countries, we will see that these countries have achieved sustainable economic development, because this development is based on a specific scientific justification, the application of scientific results in the country’s economy. When adopting the strategic doctrine of these states, the issues of scientific and technological progress are included in the basic principles of socio-economic development.

Today, along with the acquisition and application of scientific results, the process of assimilating and transforming the results of scientific and technological progress requires the development of fundamental and applied science. As indicated in the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan “On Science”, the spheres of scientific activity include fundamental, applied and experimental research. Applied research means the creation of new production processes, materials, products, devices, services and management systems based on knowledge obtained as a result of fundamental and experimental scientific research and their use in production and society to protect human health.

Taking into account the aforementioned basic principles, Academician Ali Guliyev Institute of Chemistry of Additives (ICA) of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) has made significant progress in the field of applied, as well as fundamental research. It should be noted  that in terms of the number of patents based on the results of applied and recommended research, the ICA ranks first among the country’s research institutes. Last year alone, 19 patents have been obtained and an initial positive decision has been received on 20 patents.

It should be noted that the main scientific direction of the ICA activity is the development of scientific foundations of the technology for the synthesis and production of various functional additives, corrosion inhibitors and surfactants that improve the characteristics of lubricants, fuels and special liquids, the creation of high-quality lubricants and special fluids for various purposes, the identification of new sources of raw materials in connection with their production and effective use of existing sources, fundamental research in the field of synthesis and research of physiologically active organic compounds. Based on this, we can say that the first work of the institute in the Soviet period was the process of producing sulfonate additives that improve the performance of engine oils.

For information, I would like to note that the first work on the creation of multifunctional additives in the former USSR was started precisely in the ICA, and such high-quality additives were created, and with the use of these additives, a number of high-quality engine oils were developed on the basis of Baku oils and oils from the eastern region of the USSR.

The institute has simultaneously developed and introduced on a pilot scale multifunctional polymer additives of the thiophosphinate type ИФП-388 and sulfonate type ИХП-234, on the basis of which high-performance motor and hydraulic oils have been created.

Also, extreme pressure dithiocarbamate additives and  a high-quality additive ИХП-14А were developed, industrial production was organized in Yaroslavl, and the ТАД-17ИХП transmission oil was created on their base. This oil is licensed for use in transmission hubs for cars and trucks. On the basis of additive ИХП-14А, a there has been developed geared oil ВРМ-ИХП-1201, which is used to ensure the normal operation of gearboxes of oilfield equipment.

A number of additives that ensure the production of motor, transmission and industrial oils were created by the Institute of Chemistry of Additives of ANAS. Their industrial production was organized in Azerbaijan (Baku, Sumgait), Russia (Ufa, Perm, Yaroslavl, Novo-Kuibyshevsk), Ukraine (Shostka, Kharkov) and the Republic of Belarus ( Novopolotsk). During the former Soviet Union, all motor oils produced at the Azerneftyag Refinery contained additives created by the ICA.

Additives and lubricants, created by scientists from the Institute of Chemistry of Additives, made  20% of additives and motor oils produced in the former USSR.

Lubricating materials (М-16ИХП-3, ТАД-17ИХП), which ensure the normal operation of some special engines and transmission systems produced in the former Soviet Union, were created on the basis of ICA  additives and their production was organized.

As a result of research carried out in the field of synthesis of additives for special purpose synthetic oils operating at high temperatures (above 220°C) and the creation of high-quality synthetic oil compositions based on them, a synthetic oil composition (operating at 240°C) for special purpose jet aircraft engines was developed.

Additive ИХП-712, which sharply increased the oxidation resistance of jet fuels, was developed and tested with positive results.

In the former USSR, the first anti-smoke additive for diesel fuel was developed and introduced – additive ИХП-706. When applying additive ИХП-706 to diesel fuel, the amount of smoke and carcinogens in exhaust gases was reduced by more than 60%.

НСК-5у and Aзерол series five cutting  liquids, which are used for cutting and polishing metal products with diamond tools, have been developed at various machine-building plants in the country.

The industrial production of antimicrobial additives Азин -1, Азин -2, Азин -3 and Азин -4, which protect cutting fluids and oil products from biological damage, has been organized.

Corrosion inhibitors (ИКИПГ, ИКАНАЗ, etc.) have been created to protect oilfield equipment from corrosion and engine cooling systems from destruction as a result of cavitation, the production technology has been developed and pilot production has been organized.

In the first years of independence after the collapse of the USSR, due to breaking of economic ties, the situation in the field of additives and lubricants was very difficult. To meet the country’s demand for various types of lubricants in a short time, a number of motor oils for various purposes (including special purposes) diesel engines were created on the basis of Baku base oils and additives created by the ICA, transmission oils for various types of vehicles, production on an industrial and experimental scale was organized. For example, new motor oils were created – analogues of M-10B2, М-10Г2, М-14Г2, М-14В2, М-14ГБ, oils, special-purpose oils M-16ИХП-3, as well as new motor and gear oils created according to foreign analogues to ensure the operation of imported buses and minibuses.

The institute has created a new analogue of M-14ГБ motor oil used in the Marine Oil and Gas Production Association of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) and imported from abroad, and its production is organized in the Special Technological Bureau “Ashgar”, previously operating at the institute.

At the same time, a new cutting fluid was developed to replace the Japanese cutting fluid used at the Baku Household Air Conditioning Plant.

The AzK-18 conservation oil created at the institute is widely used at the Baku Pillow Plant OJSC to protect rolling bearings from corrosion.

To meet the needs of the republic in various types of lubricants that meet modern requirements, a number of various purposes (including special purposes) lubricants  were created for engines, transmissions and hydraulic systems, and their production was organized at the Experimental Industrial Plant of ANAS. At present, the lubricants produced at the plant are used at a number of enterprises in the republic.

One of the most successful applied works of  the ICA  and its scientists since getting independence is the creation of  “AKI Depressant” additive, which reduces the freezing point and dynamic viscosity of highly paraffinic oils and allows them to be transported over long distances through pipelines.This additive is currently successfully used in the Baku-Ceyhan Oil Pipeline. The produced additive “AKI Depressant” periodically undergoes inspections at the institute.

The republic has created a technology for the regeneration of used oils applying  in various types of internal combustion engines and creating an environmental load, and on the basis of the regenerated oil and the corresponding additives, lubricating compositions for various (including special) purposes have been created for diesel engines.Waste oil regeneration technology and special lubricating compositions based on regenerated oil are protected by secret patents of the Republic of Azerbaijan due to their strategic importance.

In addition to activities in the field of additives, lubricants and special liquids, ICA has got scientific achievements in solving other problems of the republic. Thus, the scientists of the institute have developed and implemented in practice a technology for the effective use of naphthalan oil, the only one in the world with medicinal properties.

Besides, highly effective corrosion inhibitors, reagents that stabilize the physical and mechanical properties of drilling fluids used in drilling, various disinfectants and medicines to protect metals from corrosion have been developed and recommended for use. For example, over the past 50 years, scientific research on the protection of oil products from microbiological damage using special additives – biocides – has shown that synthesized biocidal additives, in addition to protecting oil products from microbiological damage, are physiologically active in other areas too. In the past, a large number of biologically active organic compounds were synthesized, the relationship between their composition and structure and physiological activity was  studied, and some of them were successfully tested and recommended for use as medicines. The studies were carried out at the 1st Moscow State I.M.Sechenov Medical Institute, the laboratory “Biochemical Pharmacology” of the All-Russian Research Institute and G.Musabekov Institute of Virology, Microbiology and Hygiene of Azerbaijan. Aminophen preparation synthesized at the institute was proposed by the Ministry of Health of Azerbaijan for disinfection of medical equipment and premises, registered at the Scientific Research Institute of Technology and Safety of Medicine (Moscow) with number 8841888.

As you can see, the Institute of Chemistry of Additives of ANAS, which participates in the commercialization of science in Azerbaijan, carries out a direct scientific and technical substantiation of the production of science-intensive, competitive and innovative products in our country, supports the creation of an innovative business. Since one of the priority directions of the institute’s activities is cooperation with industrial enterprises and support for the commercialization of science in accordance with the “Development Program of Azerbaijan  National Academy of Sciences for 2020-2025”. To this purpose  the patents of the employees of the institute having commercial potential, are currently being implemented in the High-Tech Park (HTP) of ANAS. technologies (HTP) of ANAS. The Technopark is implementing patent projects on various methods of obtaining motor and lubricating oils, cutting fluids and other products, which are the result of research carried out at the institute.

The Institute has developed regulatory and technical documents that provide production technologies, production and consumption of lubricating oils and other lubricants produced at the HTP of ANAS and the H.Aliyev Oil Refinery. The Institute provides scientific and technical support to the above enterprises in organizing the production and testing of these products.

The ICA of ANAS has been recently awarded the international prize “Winner BIZZ” established by the World Business Confederation located in Houston, Texas, USA, for the commercialization and application of major works, support of business with important applied scientific research.

Although at the present there are sufficiently used applied works of the ICA, however, they are not adequate to the existing potential of the institute. But this also has its own objective reasons. First of all, there is a great need for coordinated cooperation between scientific institutions and industries. Today, specialized scientific institutions of the ANAS covering various sectors of economy can make a great contribution to the country’s economy.

In particular, the production of strategic products such as lubricants, fuels and cutting fluids can be carried out on the basis of internal capacities. Because there are academic experience and highly qualified personnel. It is possible to organize this production in a short time by purchasing cheap raw materials. It is estimated that approximately hundreds of millions of dollars are spent annually on the production of strategic lubricants. Consequently, local production, organized on the basis of existing capabilities, with the application of scientific achievements in the real economy of the country, could also prevent the outflow of domestic funds. As the saying goes, by buying local goods, we can benefit the country. We will also get rid of dependence on foreign strategic products.

Academician Vagif Farzaliyev,
Director General of ICA of ANAS