The first Azerbaijani woman in the history of Azerbaijani science is a great chemist-scientist


There are very few people in life who can work in two different fields, achieve great success and, most importantly, rise to the top of these professions. I would especially like to mention the name of one of these people – Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR, laureate of the State Prize, Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the Azerbaijan SSR, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, and also the first People’s Artist of Azerbaijan Izzet Mirzaaga kyzy Orujeva. Because the name of Izzet khanum has entered the history of Azerbaijani cinema both as the first people’s film actress and as the first Azerbaijani woman in the history of Azerbaijani science as a great chemist.This time I would like to tell about the scientific activity of Izzet khanum.

I note that Izzet khanum was born in 1909 in Baku in the family of a gardener. After graduating from high school in 1926, she entered the Faculty of Engineering and Technology of the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute named after M.Azizbayov.

Izzet khanum graduated from the institute in the early 30s of the XX century and chose one of the most important areas of science – petrochemistry. From 1932 to 1959, she went a long way from a laboratory assistant to a senior researcher, head of the AzETI laboratory named after V.Kuibyshev, and then the NKPI of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR.

I.Orujeva was one of the leading scientists in the field of petrochemistry, as well as one of the first founders of the Institute of Chemistry of Additives, the only specialized institute in the field of additives in the post-Soviet space. The activities of I.Orujova were mainly aimed at developing the chemistry of additives and creating more advanced lubricants.

Initially, Izzet khanim worked in the additives laboratory. Under the leadership of the prominent scientist Ali Musa oglu Guliyev, serious and intensive research was carried out in the laboratory in the field of economical methods for obtaining oil additives – miraculous substances that extended the life of engines.

I.Orujova worked on various topics: “Search for raw materials for the production of aviation oils”, “Obtaining aviation oils from concentrates of selected and ordinary Surakhany oils”, “Mastering the production of distilled aviation oils at the Japaridze plant”, “Obtaining residual aviation oils from Balakhani oil” . In 1947 she defended her PhD thesis.

In 1949, based on her personal results and collaboration with other scientists, she developed a technology for the production of motor and special oils. For the first time, one of the Baku refineries regulated the production of low-viscosity lubricants based on paraffin and non-paraffin oils of various origins.

The main areas of her scientific activity were the study of lubricating oils from Baku oil, the technology of the oil refining process, as well as the study of additives in oils of various origins, the development of technologies for the continuous production of additives and the creation of additive compositions. She is one of the authors of a number of the first additives and motor oils based on them created in our country.

I.Orujova, together with another group of scientists, successfully carried out the dewaxing of oils with urea, as well as the waxing of a number of petroleum distillates. Since then, Baku lubricants have not lagged behind foreign counterparts. In 1962, I.Orujova defended her doctoral dissertation on the topic “Development of a technology for obtaining low-temperature oils from Baku raw materials and improving their quality with the help of additives” and became the first female doctor of science in the field of oil technology in the USSR. First, she was awarded the title of professor, and two years later the title of Honored Worker of Science and Technology of the Azerbaijan SSR.

In the mid-60s of the XX century, the research institute was transformed into the Institute of Petrochemical Processes as a part of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, and in 1965, on the basis of some of its laboratories, the Institute of Chemistry of Additives  – the only specialized research center in the USSR was created.

With the participation of Orujova, many high-octane additives were developed and introduced into production, including AzETI-5, AzETI-7, СБ-3, БФК and others.

In 1967, I.Orujova was elected a corresponding member of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences.

As can be seen from the above, the activities of I.Orujova were mainly aimed at developing chemistry of additives and creating more advanced lubricants. The results of research by Izzet khanim, including БФК, СБ-3, ИХП-101, ИХП-21 additives, are successfully used in production at the Sumgayit Additive Plant. It contributed to the establishment of scientific and technical relations between the Institute of Chemistry of Additives and the leading scientific centers of the USSR in Moscow, Leningrad, Togliatti, Perm and Tambov. I.Orujova was a member of the Council on Petrochemistry and Oil Refining of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences and the Specialized Scientific Council of the Azerbaijan Oil Academy, which awarded doctoral degrees.

The use of these additives in production, at the prices of that time, brought the economy tens of millions.

I.Orujova and her laboratory staff created lubricating compositions to improve the quality of a group of oils produced by the Azerneftyag refinery. For this work they were awarded the State Prize of Azerbaijan in 1970. The research work of I.Orujova in the field of creating compositions of additives that increase the resistance of synthetic oils used in special equipment to oxidation is reflected in copyright certificates.

For work on improving the characteristics of oil compositions based on pentaerythritol esters, which are characterized by high resistance, patents were issued to her.

In 1972, Izzet khanim was elected a full member of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences. For a long time she was head of laboratories, and in 1967-1971 she worked as director of the Institute of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic. During her leadership, very serious research was carried out at the institute in the field of corrosion inhibitors used as a means of protecting metals from corrosion. The results of this work were summarized in the monograph “Metal Corrosion Inhibitors”, published in Russian. She is the author of about 300 scientific inventions and published scientific papers, as well as the original textbooks “Petrochemistry” and “Lubricants” in Azerbaijani, more than 30 copyright certificates. I.Orujova was actively engaged in the training of personnel, who today work productively in Azerbaijan and abroad.

As for human qualities, I can say that she was a real person. Once employees of the Institute of Oil and Chemistry worked here as laboratory assistants. She was very businesslike. She said that every day she determined the composition of 18 samples at 1000C. Today’s laboratory assistants cannot do 4-5 at all.

Izzet khanim had a separate office only during the director’s work, and when the Institute of Chemistry of Additives moved to a new building, 4 employees sat with her. Once a young deputy director came to us, but there were no ethical actions corresponding to the mentality. He called for Izzet khanim to go to him. It had a bad effect on us. I told her: “Izzet khanim, you walk at his feet, what does it mean? Knock your hand on the table once and show him that you are Izzet khanim. She told me:” The truth is that I have not lost anything in my life from this simplicity”. This phrase is also engraved in my brain.

Izzet khanim had retentive memory. She knew by heart the work that was done at almost every plant in the republic, what processes were taken place. Any scientific work done by Izzet khanim found its application in factories. She conducted successful research in the field of additives and achieved high scientific results.

At present, the methods discovered by Izzet Orujova are used in some factories. Many scientists have even received the Stalin Prize for such methods.

I would say that the role of Sevil, acted by Izzet khanim played the role  in such selflessness. I.Orujova was the first Azerbaijani woman to act in films. Based on the works of Jabbarli, two films were shot: “Sevil” (1929) and “Almaz” (1936). There are different legends about the arrival of Izzet khanim in the cinema, or rather about how the great playwright Jafar Jabbarli found her and brought her to the film factory. But the opinions are different, but the result is the same. She was opened by Jafar Jabbarli for cinematography.

She was the chairman of the Society of Friendship and Culture of the Azerbaijan SSR and the ADR, a deputy of the Baku City Council, the chairman of the Council of Women of the Republic. He was awarded the Orders of Lenin, the Red Banner of Labor, the Order of the Badge of Honor, the medal “For the Defense of the Caucasus”, the medal “For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.” for 47 years of service. labor, scientific and organizational activities were awarded the State Prize of the Azerbaijan SSR. The name of Izzet Mirzaag kyzy Orujev is included in the Book of Honor of Azerbaijan. Rest in peace! Truth Javadova Head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Chemistry of Additives of ANAS, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor